تحولِ هویت روشنفکری و تأثیر آن در سر کار آمدن رضاخان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم سیاسی، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد خرم آباد، خرم آباد، ایران

2 استادیار گروه علوم سیاسی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

3 استاد گروه علوم سیاسی دانشگاه مازندران، مازندران، ایران

10.22055/qjsd.2020.31542.2085

چکیده

برآمدن رضاخان در سپهر سیاست ایران، وجوه مختلفی داشت. وی فرزند زمانه‌ای پرآشوب بود که پس از مشروطه به وجود آمده بود. یکی از مهم‌ترین گروه‌هایی که در برآمدنِ او نقش کلیدی را به عهده داشتند، روشنفکران سال‌های پایانی قاجار بودند. عدم موفقیت نهضت مشروطه در ایجاد حکومت متجدد، متمرکز و قانونمند و دخالت قدرتهای بزرگ روس و انگلستان در امور داخلی ایران، همراه با تحولات بینالمللی و وقوع جنگ جهانی اول و اشغال ایران، روشنفکران را بر آن داشت تا از نظر هویتی به ‌دنبال پیدا کردن «ابرمرد»ی باشند که بتواند با به کار بستن «زور» و ایجاد حکومتی مقتدر، ضمن بازگرداندن یکپارچگی کشور آن را به دروازه‌های دنیای مدرن برساند. روشنفکران این دوره علیرغم شباهت‌های فراوانی که با نسل اوّل روشنفکری ایران داشتند، دارای یک تفاوت عمده بودند. نسل اوّل روشنفکری ایران بیش از هر چیز هویت متجددانه خود را در «قانون‌خواهی» می‌دید که ثمره آن مشروطه شد و روشنفکران نسل دوم هویت خود را در «استبداد منور» می‌دیدند که ثمره آن برآمدن رضاخان و نهایتاً پادشاهی او بود. مقاله حاضر با استفاده از مبانی نظری جامعه‌شناسی شناخت (رابطه متقابل بین اندیشه و ساختار جامعه) و به روش توصیفی ـ تحلیلی صورت پذیرفته و ضمن توجه به هویت قانون‌خواهانه نسل اوّل، تحول آن را با توجه به گفتار برخی از مهم‌ترین روشنفکران نسل دوم، مورد بررسی قرار می­دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Evolution of Intellectualism Identity and Its Impact on Reza Khan's Rise to Power

نویسندگان [English]

  • BIZHAN MIRZAEI 1
  • Morteza Mahmoodi 2
  • Ali Karimi Mele 3
  • Ali Asghar Zargar 2
1 PhD Student in Political Science, Iran Issues Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Reza Khan's rise to power in the Iranian political climate had many aspects. He was the son of a tumultuous time after the constitution. One of the most influential groups that had a key role to bring him to power was intellectuals of the late years of Qajar. The failure of the constitutional movement to establish a modern, centralized, and legitimate government and the involvement of Russian and British powers in Iran's internal affairs, along with international developments and the outbreak of World War I and the occupation of Iran, prompted intellectuals to seek a "superman" that could bring about the unity of the country by employing "force" and establishing a stable government to put Iran in the gates of the modern world. Here the intellectuals of this period had a significant difference, despite many similarities. The first generation of Iranian intellectuals saw their modern-day identity in the "law-making" that the result was the constitution revolution. However, the second-generation intellectuals saw their identity in the "Enlightened despotism," the result of which was the rise of Reza Khan and, ultimately, his kingdom. This paper applied the theoretical foundations of cognitive sociology (the interrelationship between thought and the structure of society). In a descriptive-analytical way, it examines the evolution of intellectualism, considering the law-abiding nature of first-generation and opinions of some of the most important second-generation intellectuals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • intellectualism
  • Identity
  • Law-Abiding
  • Enlightened Despotism
  • Reza Khan
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