Investigating the Factors Affecting the Development of the Business Habitus of Members of Incubator Units and Knowledge Based Companies

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD in Sociology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Sociology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran



The present paper examines the role of factors on the business habitus of the members of incubator units and knowledge based companies at ferdowsi university of Mashhad. The sample size is 204 people and Structural variables include social trust, intellectual property, administrative bureaucracy, formal and informal education, and business Institution. Variables are related to studies and researches. Correlational relations show which increases the habitus of business by increasing independent variables. Based on stepwise regression analysis impact of four variables: business Institution, formal education, social trust and informal education is the best equation that influences the rise of business habitus. it is recommended confidence building in the business environment by qualifying and standardizing and developing contracts, facilitating laws and regulations to reduce administrative bureaucracy, developing specialized business-related training, establishing and developing business Institution through business organizations, laws and culture And intellectual property preservation programs to strengthen business habitus and help entrepreneurs.


Abdullahi, M. (2010). Key Concepts of Bourdieu, Mohammad Mehdi Labibi, Tehran, Afkar Publishing. (Persian).
Aghaee. S. D., Akbarian A. (2011). “Political Economy of Multinational Corporations and Developmentalist Government”, Quarterly Journal of Politics, 41(1): 1-20. (Persian).
Akbarzadeh N, Shafizadeh E. (2012). “A Study of the Role of Government in Improving the Process of Creation and Development of Knowledge-Based Businesses”, Technology Growth, 9(33): 46-53. (Persian).
Alaghband, A. (2008). Theoretical Foundations and Principles of Educational Management, Ravan Publishing, Tehran. (Persian).
Andres, A. R., Otero Abraham,Voxi Heinrich, A. (2021). “Using deep learning neural networks to predict the knowledge economy index for developing and emerging economies”, Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 184.
Baghdadi, M., Shavardi M. (2012). “Successful Technology Commercialization with a Team Approach”, Technology Growth, 9(33): 37-45. (Persian).
Bayat N., Zakeri M., Asadi, E. (2021). “The Impact of Organizational Trust on Knowledge Commercialization in Knowledge-Based Companies”, General Policy Making in Management (Mission of Public Management), 12(43):65-80. (Persian).
Bourdieu, P. (2009). A Lesson About a Lesson, Nasser Fakuhi, Tehran, Ney Publishing. (Persian).
Bourdieu, P., Wacquant, Loic J. D. (1992). “An invitation to reflexive sociology”, trans. UK: Polity press, Vol 3.
Cheraghali M. R, Sharifzadeh M. S, Arabic A. (2020). “Development of knowledge commercialization process model with international approach in knowledge-based educational companies”, Development of Jundishapur education, 11(4): 716-728. (Persian).
Cingitas, Y., Zumrut, E. (2015). “Economic and Social Benefits that can be obtained by a Combination of Innovation and Corporate Entrepreneurship Activities in Turkish Companies”, World Conference on Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Social and Behavioral Sciences 195: 1129–1137.
Comprehensive Scientific Map of the Country (2011). Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution, Department of Macro Objectives of Science and Technology. (Persian).
Day, G. S. & Wensley, R. (1988). “Assessing advantage: A framework for diagnosing competitive superiority”, Journal of Marketing, 52 (2): 1-20.
Dornberger, U., Nabi, M. N. (2011). The impact of market orientation on the performance of the Vietnamese software firms. University of Twente Proceedings.
Dullayaphut, Ph., S., Untachai (2013). “Development the Measurement of Human Resource Competency in SMEs in Upper Northeastern Region of Thailand”, Social and Behavioral Sciences 88, 61-72.
Esmaeilpour M., Hamidianpour F., Mohammadi, Z. (2019). “The effect of entrepreneurship and market orientation on the market performance of knowledge-based companies with the mediating role of marketing capability and marketing effectiveness (Case study: knowledge-based companies in Bushehr)”, Business Strategies 26 (13): 181-198. (Persian).
Foray, D. (2000). The remarkable properties of knowledge as an economic good, Paris: IMRI University: 3-5
Fucec, A. A., C. Marinescu (Pirlogea). (2014). “Knowledge economies in the European Union: Romania’s position”, Emerging Markets Queries in Finance and Business, Economics and Finance 15: 481–489.
Giddens, A. (2005). Consequences of modernity (Translator, Mohsen Thalasi), Tehran: Markaz Publishing. (Persian).
Golshan Foumani, M. R. (2003). Sociology of Education, Tehran, Doran Publishing, Third Edition. (Persian).
Grenfell, M. (2010). Key Concepts of Bourdieu, Mohammad Mehdi Labibi, Tehran, Afkar Publishing. (Persian).
Haung, J. W. & Yong, H. L. (2009). “The mediating effect of knowledge management on social interaction and innovation performance”, International Journal of Manpower, 30(3): 285-301.
Hazudin Siti Fahazarina, Mohd Aidil Riduan Awang Kader, N. H. Tarmuji, Maisarah, I. and Roslina, A. (2015). “Discovering Small Business Start up Motives”, Success Factors and Barriers: A Gender Analysis, Economics and Finance 31: 436–443.
Jamshidiha, G, Parastesh, S. (2007). “The dialectic of character and field in Pierre Bourdieu's theory of action”, Social Sciences Letter, 1(30):1-32.
Kais, M., MacVaugh Jason A., Dimitrios T. (2018). “Knowledge configurations of small and medium-sized knowledge-intensive firms in a developing economy: A knowledge-based view of business-to-business internationalization”, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 71: 160-170.
Kanellos Nikos, S. (2013). “Exploring the characteristics of knowledge-based entrepreneurs in Greece, the 2nd International Conference on Integrated Information, Social and Behavioral Sciences 73: 337–344.
Karimi Yazdi, A., Haghighi, M., Nategh, T. (2019). “Presenting a Model of Commercialization Strategies for New Products and Technologies in Start-Up Knowledge-Based Companies”, Medicine and Cultivation, 28(2): 54-69. (Persian).
Karimi, F., Hassanpour, Y. (2011). “The Effect of Competitiveness of Iran's Knowledge-Based Industries on Trade with Southwest Asia”, Quarterly Journal of Economic Research and Policy, 19(60): 90-112. (Persian).
Kemayel, L. (2015). “Success Factors of Lebanese SMEs: an Empirical Study, World Conference on Technology”, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Social and Behavioral Sciences 195:1123-1128.
Khodaparast, M., Samadi S., Hooshmand, M., Salimifar, M. (2009). “The Effect of Protection of Intellectual Property Rights on Economic Growth”, Quantitative Economics Quarterly (Quarterly Journal of Economic Studies), 6(4): 101-123. (Persian).
Knowledge Economy Report (2012). Knowledge Economy Index (KEI), 2012 Rankings,
Kohli, A. & Jasworks, B. J. (1990). “Market orientation: The construct, research propositions and managerial implications”, Journal of Marketing, 54 (2), 1-19.
Lambert, S. A. (2008). “Conceptual Framework for Business Model Research”, 21st Bled eConference Collaboration on Overcoming Boundaries through Multi-Channel Interaction: 227-289.
Leser Valentina, J., S., Nada Trunk, D., Valerij, A. Trunk (2018). “Career Opportunities for PhD Graduates in the knowledge-based Economy: Case of Slovenia”, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 238.
Liu, Z., D., Yushen (2022). “Open knowledge disclosure and technical standard competition in transition economies: A legitimacy perspective”, Technology in Society, Vol. 70.
Mirani, N., Sheikh Ismaili, S., Mirani V. (2014). “Investigating the Effects of Dimensions of Knowledge-Based Economy on Production Growth in Iran”, Industrial Management, 9(1): 77-90. (Persian).
Mirzaeian R., Soheili K., Najafi S. M., Fathollahi J. (2019). “Institutions, Prerequisites for Business in Knowledge-Based Economy”, Applied Economic Studies of Iran (Applied Economic Studies), 8(30): 87-105. (Persian).
Motvaseali, M., Mashhadi, A., Nikonasbeti, A., Sami Yansab, M. (2010). “Institutional Economics, the pioneers of institutionalism that transformed economics”, Tehran: Imam Sadegh University Press. (Persian).
Musso, F., B., Francioni (2012). “The Influence of Decision-Maker Characteristics on the International Strategic Decision-Making Process: An SME Perspective”, 8th International Strategic Management Conference, Social and Behavioral Sciences 58:279-288.
Nahapiet, J. & Ghoshal, S. (1998). “Social capital, intellectual capital and the organizational advantage”, Academy of Management Review, 23(2): .242-66.
Nasrollahi, Z., Taheri Demneh, M., Damaki, A. M. (2009). The Role of Creativity and Innovation in Economic Growth, Second National Conference on Creativity and TRIZ, and Iranian Innovation Engineering and Management, Tehran. (Persian)
North, D. C. (1968). “Sources of productivity change in ocean shipping, 1600-1850”, The Journal of Political Economy, 76(5), 1-9.
Office of Policy, Public Relations and Information of the Vice President for Science (2012). Knowledge-Based Production Strategy: The Position of Knowledge-Based Companies in the Resistance Economy, Tehran, Information and Policy Center of the Vice President for Science. (Persian).
Pellesova, P., Pavla, S. (2014). “Position of small and medium companies in Poland and results of research in selected areas”, Contemporary Issues in Business, Management and Education 2013, Social and Behavioral Sciences 110:932–941.
Piroznia, M. (2006). Education is one of the most important socialization agencies, New Season Internet Magazine (Persian).
Qelich Lee, B., Makani, A. (2016). “Entrepreneurial Competencies”, Innovation and Performance of Knowledge-Based Companies, Strategic Management, 7(27): 89-106. (Persian).
Rafipour, F. (2008). Anatomy of Society, Tehran, Publishing Company, Fifth Edition. (Persian).
Rahmani T, Amiri M. (2007). “The effect of trust on economic growth in Iranian provinces by spatial econometrics”, Economic Research, 14(78): 23-57. (Persian).
Ramezanpour E., Ayagh Z., Chehreh, M. (2012). “The role of knowledge-based economy and productivity in the resistance economy”, Proceedings of the National Conference on the study and explanation of resistance economics, University of Guilan: 349-361. (Persian).
Reay, D., Crozier, G., Clayton, J. (2009). Strangers in paradise? Working-class student in elite university. Sociology, Vol. 43.
Rezvani, M., Toghraei, M. (2011). “Influencing Social Capital in the Tendency to Innovation in Knowledge-Based Companies”, Transformation Management Research Paper, 3(6): 29-53. (Persian).
Ritzer, G. (2011), Theory of Sociology in Contemporary Times, translated by Mohsen Thalasi, Tehran, Scientific Publications. (Persian).
Robertson, J. (1998). An Introduction to Society, Hossein Behravan, Tehran, Astan Quds Razavi, Third Edition. (Persian).
Rogers Everett, M. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations, New York: Free Press.
Sadeghi, H., Maleki, B., Assari A., Mahmoudi, V. (2013). “Fuzzy Analysis of the Relationship between Social Trust and Human Development”, Quarterly Journal of Economic Growth and Development Research, 3(12): 9-20. (Persian).
Saide, M. E. R. (2015). “Knowledge Management Support For Enterprise Resource Planning Implementation”, The Third Information Systems International Conference, Computer Science 72:613-621.
Schiliro, D. (2010). Knowledge-based economies and the institutional environment. Universita Degli Studi Di Messina Desmas V, Pareto: 1-6.
Soraya, D., Cruz Pedro, E., Florinda, M. (2022). “Understanding how Additive Manufacturing influences organizations’ strategy in knowledge economy”, Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 200: 1318-1327.
Stevens, R. (2004). “Why do educational innovations come and go?”, Teaching and Teacher Education. Vol. 20: 389-396.
Sukarmijan, S. S., Sapong Olivia, D. V. (2014). “The importance of intellectual property for SMEs; Challenges and moving forward”, International Agribusiness Marketing Conference 2013, UMK Procedia 1: 74-81.
Tajbakhsh, K. (2005). Social Capital, Trust and Democracy, translated by Afshin Pakbaz and Hossein Pouyan, Tehran: Shirazeh Publishing. (Persian).
Teece D. J. (2010). Business models, business strategy and innovation. Long Range.
Weber, M. (2008). Religion, Power and Society, translated by Ahmad Tadayon, Hermes Publications. (Persian).
Yeongjun, Y., L., Jeong-Dong (2020). “Revitalizing the race between technology and education: Investigating the growth strategy for the knowledge-based economy based on a CGE analysis”, Technology in Society, Vol. 62.
Ziafati, B. A., Eduardo, O. (2021). “Prospects of a transition to the knowledge economy in Saudi Arabia and Qatar: A critical reflection through the lens of spatial embeddedness and evolutionary governance theory”, Futures, Vol. 129.