Structural Model of Factors Affecting the Attitude towards Gender Discrimination among Working Women in Behbahan

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor of Sociology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Master student of Sociology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran



The purpose of this article is to investigate the structural model of factors affecting attitudes toward gender discrimination among working women in Behbahan. The method of this research is survey and the data collection tool is a questionnaire. The statistical population of the study includes all female employees in Behbahan, which is equal to 375 people. In terms of time, this research was conducted in 2019-2020. The results of modeling structural equations affect the variables of social capital, gender objects, glass ceiling factors, cultural capital and gender socialization on the variable of gender discrimination in the workplace and also the effect of the variables of social capital and cultural capital on society variables Gender acceptance has confirmed glass roof factors and gender objects among women. The validity and reliability indices of the model measurement section show that the model has a good fit. In order to evaluate the fit of the measurement model, several indicators were considered in the reliability of the model. Therefore, it can be said that in the measurement model section, the research variables have sufficient reliability and validity. In the structural model section, considering the significant numbers, it can be concluded that the research hypotheses have been confirmed. Also, the results of path analysis have shown that the variables of gender objects and social capital have the greatest impact on the variable of gender inequality in the workplace, respectively.


Azarn Azade, M., Rezayl, A. (2010). “Gender Inequality in Education in Dorud Faraman part of Kerman-shah province”, Women's Studies Sociological and Psychological, 8(2), 7-23. doi: 10.22051/jwsps.2010.1325. (Persian).
Abbott P., Wallace, K. (2016). Sociology of Women, translated by Manijeh Najmaraqi, 12th edition, Tehran, Nashr-e Ney Publications. (Persian).
Azzazi, Sh. (1997). Family Sociology: Emphasizing the Role of Family Structure and Function in Contemporary Times, Tehran, Roshangaran Publications and Women Studies. (Persian).
Amrollahi, L. (2011). Study of the relationship between social capital and attitudes and behaviors in the field of gender inequality in the city of Hamadan. Master Thesis, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Bu Ali Sina University. (Persian).
Author of the Doctrine Research Institute (2018). Model of effective social capital in the defense-security power of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Tehran, University and the Higher Research Institute of National Defense and Strategic Research Center of Strategic Publications. (Persian).
Bokharaee A. (2016). “Analysis of the socio-cultural factors influencing gender inequality (the study of married women 20-49 years old in Isfahan)”, 4 (3):59-82. (Persian).
Bourdieu, P. (2011). Distinction: Social Critique of Taste Judgments, translated by Hassan Chavoshian, Tehran, Sales Edition. (Persian).
Bambah, B. (2015). Factors Affecting Gender Inequality in the Sciences: A Case Study of Women Scientists in the Indian University System.
Blommaert, L & Spierings, N. (2019). “Examining ethno-religious labor market inequalities among women in the Netherlands”, Journal Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, p. 1-14.
Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A Social Critique on the Judgment of Tastes. Rotledge, London.
Cailin, S. S. and Leanne, S. and Son, H. (2015). Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers’ sexism. REVIEW published: 16 September 2015 doi: 10. 3389/ fpsyg. 2015.01400.
Dehnavi, J. (2005). “A Study of the Relationship between Feelings of Gender Inequality and Motivation of Social Mobility in Female Students”, Women's Studies, 3 (7), 51-75. (Persian).
Enayat, H., Roozbehani, M. (2013). “A Study of Socio-Cultural Factors Related to Gender Inequality among 9- to 6-Year-Old Girls in Tehran”, Shushtar Azad University Social Sciences Quarterly, 7 (6), 123-152. (Persian).
Fathi, S., Mokhtarpour, M. (2017). “Explaining the Attitudes of Women Towards Gender Gap and Gaining a Social Base: A Case of Study Women Aged 30-40 Years in Tehran”, Juornal of A Research Journal on Social Work, 4(13), 73-94. doi: 10.22054/rjsw.2017.10223. (Persian).
Ghanbari, F., Fathi, S. (2017). “Investigating Factors Affecting the Production of Gender Inequality among Families of Garmsar”, journal of policing& social studies of women & family (pssw), 1396(8), 69-86. (Persian).
Garrett, S. (2001). Sociology of Gender, translated by Katayoun Baghaei, Tehran, Digar publication, first edition. (Persian).
Grossi, S. (2005) The Effect of Formal Beliefs on Gender Inequality in Kerman and Surrounding Villages, PhD Thesis, Shiraz University. (Persian).
Hinton, P. R. (2000). Stereotypes, cognition and culture, philadelphia: psychology press.
Hassanvand, M. (2018). “The relationship between social and cultural assets and feeling of security in women in Khoramabad”, Police knowledge of Lorestan province applied research office–lorestan police, 6(23), 27-57. (Persian).
Hosseini, S. N., Sadr Nabavi, F., Fooladian, A. (2018). The feeling of gender inequality and its cultural and social factors affecting female students of Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, Fourth National Conference on Applied Research in Educational Sciences and Behavioral Studies of Iran, Tehran, Permanent Secretariat of the Conference. (Persian).
Jackson, S. (2003). “The Gendering of sociology. Edited by Jackson, and scot. Ability verus vulnerability: belief about mens, and womans emotional behavior”, cognition and emotion, P.P 41-57.
Lak, R., Mohagheghi Kamal, S. H. (2018). The study of the relationship between gender inequality and life satisfaction among female students (Case study: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences), 3rd International Conference on Psychology, Educational Sciences and Humanities, Sofia- Bulgaria, Permanent Secretariat of the Conference. (Persian).
Mirsandsi, S. M. (1996). Factors affecting people's perception of justice and its relationship with inequality, a case study of Mashhad. Master Thesis, Sociology major, Tarbiat Modares University. (Persian).
Movahed, M., Kaidan, M. (2007). Gender and Sociology of Religion, Shiraz, Avand Andisheh Publications. (Persian)
Mousavi, M. and P. Alipour (2012). A Reflection on Social Capital Theory in Sociology, Tehran, Sociologists Publications. (Persian).
Nabavi, S. A., Ahmadi, L. (2007). “The effect of social factors on symbolic gender inequality in the family (inequality in decision-making power)”, Iranian Journal of Sociology, 8 (2), 59-82. (Persian).
Ohara, Y. and S. Saft. (2003). “Using conversation analysis to track gender ideologis in social intraction:toward a feminist analysis of a Japanese phone- in consulation Tv program”, Discourse and Society .Vol. 14. No. 2, pp. 153-172.
Parsons, T. (1955). The social system, New York the the free press 14. 24-Renzetti ,Claire M.& Curran, Daniel, J. (1988). Woman, Men and society: the sociology of Gender, Boston: Allyn and Bacon ,407 P.
Ruhani, A., Abedi-Diznab, M. (2020). “Dualism of Discrimination and Hope, a Trajectory of Gender Discrimination among Middle-Class Women in Tabriz”, a Grounded Theory. Women in Development & Politics, 18(1), 55-79. doi: 10.22059/jwdp.2020.290289.1007723. (Persian).
Shadloo, Sh. (2003). The Role of Culture in Balancing Gender Attitudes in Social Life for Women's Empowerment, Proceedings of the Women's Empowerment Conference, Women's Participation Center, Tehran. (Persian)
Sharipour, M. (2006). Social Capital: Conceptualization, Measurement and Implications of Social Policy, Sari, Mazandaran Management and Planning Organization. (Persian).
Shekarbeigi, A. (2017). Gender inequality and its related factors among the women citizens of Boukan and Miandoab. Women Studies, 8(21), 47-67. (Persian).
Salehi Amiri, S. R., Sepehrnia, R. (2015) The model of promoting cultural capital in Iran, Tehran, Phoenix Publications. (Persian).
Tanhayi, A. and Panahi, M. (2009). A Study of Attitudes Based on Equality between Men and Women and Its Impact on Family Relations, Sociological Quarterly, 5 (3), pp. 9-33. (Persian).
Thelwall, M., Bailey, C., Makita, Meiko., Sud, Pardeep and Madalli, D. P. (2019). “Gender and research publishing in India: Uniformly high inequality?”, Journal of Informetrics 13 (2019) 118–131.
Smit, S. S. (2005). “Don’t put my neme on it: social capital Activation and job Finding Assistance among the Blak Urban Poor”, Amerrican jeourunal of Sociology (AJS), 111(1).
Turner, J. (1986). The Structure of Sociological Theory. New York: Wadsworth Publisging Company.
Turner, J. (1998). The Structure of Sociological Theory. New York: Wadsworth Publisging Company.
Williams, J. E. and D. Best. (1999). Pancultural gender sterotypes revisited: the five factor model, sex roles.April.