Meta-Analysis of Four Decades of Research on the Causes and Motivations of Tobacco Use in Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Master of Social Welfare Planning, Faculty of Social Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Department of pulmonary medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Tobacco Control Research Center (TCRC), Iranian Anti-tobacco Association, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran



Despite the disadvantages and adverse effects of tobacco on human health and the environment, tobacco use in our country continues to grow. Various researches have investigated the issue of smoking, which needs to be consistent. The present study aimed to identify the causes and motivations of tobacco use in individuals through qualitative meta-analysis. Data were collected by referring to databases of SID, Magiran, Irandoc, Tobacco Research Center of Iran and IranMedex with the keywords of tobacco, cigarette and hookah in a period of time (1978-2018). The findings indicated that contextual variables, smoking relatives, easy access to tobacco, leisure activities, Patterns, social change, environmental stressors, beliefs, attitudes and awareness, weakness of social and religious affiliation were among the factors that tend to be tobacco in Iran. Accordingly, it is necessary to pay serious attention to consider leisure and tobacco management and happiness.


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