Investigating Social Factors Affecting Social Tolerance (Case study: Ethnic Groups Living in Ahvaz)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD student in Sociology, Islamic Azad University, Dehaghan Branch, Dehaghan, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Theoretical and Cultural Orientation of Islamic Azad University, Mobarakeh Branch, Mobarakeh, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Cultural Management and Planning, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Khorasgan, Iran



In the past, the diversity of cultures, languages, ethnicities and other elements of social life was less, and as a result, tolerating each other's differences and beliefs was not an important issue; But with the increasing growth and development of communication in all fields, on the one hand, cultural, ethnic, linguistic and religious diversity has increased, and on the other hand, the amount of interactions between people has doubled so that without a minimum of social tolerance and tolerance of different opinions. Otherwise, it will be impossible to live normally. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the social and cultural factors affecting the social tolerance of ethnic groups in Ahvaz, selected 384 citizens through multi-stage sampling and collected data using a questionnaire in SPSS23 software has analyzed. Findings showed that there is no significant relationship between ethnicity and ethnic diversity variables with social tolerance. But there is a significant and direct relationship between the variables of citizenship rights (0.138) and political participation (0.360) with the variable of social tolerance and between the variable of group convergence (-0.205) and the variable of social tolerance.


Adibi sedeh M, Rastegar Y, Beheshty S. (2014). “Social Tolerance and Its Components”, Refahj. 13 (50), 350-353. (persian).
Adman, P. Stromblad, P. (2018). “Time for tolerance: exploring the influence of learning institutions on the recognition of political rights among immigrants”, Comparative Migration Studies. 6(34).
Brown. R. (1955). prejudice:Its Social psychology, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Cialdini, R.B. Goldstein, N. J. (2004). “Social influence: Compliance and conformity”, Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 591-621.
Corcoran K.E. Pettinicchio, D. Robbins, B. (2012). “Religion and the Acceptability of White-Collar Crime: A Cross-National Analysis”, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 51(3), 542–567.
Dennis Y. (2007), “Tolerating on Faith: Locke, Williams, and the Origins of Political Toleration”, Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Political Science. Duke University.
Doebler, S. (2014). “Relationships Between Religion and Intolerance Towards Muslims and Immigrants in Europe: A Multilevel Analysis”, Review of Religious Research, 1, 61-86.
Domehri, M. Bahyan, S. Jahanbakhsh, I. (2019). “Study of the relationship between social capital and social tolerance (Case study: citizens aged 15 to 44 years in Mazandaran province)”, Cultural-Communication Studies, 20 (47), 141-164. (persian)
Faiala, A. (2005). Tolerance and the Ethical Life (Continuum Studies in Philosophy). London: Continuum.
Farahani, A. (2007). Ethnic Studies: Concepts and Theories, Strategic research. 8.
Felacher, G. (2004). Nstability in Tolerance, in Tolerance Articles Collection, Compiled by: David Heid, Translation: Research Institute for Strategic Studies, Tehran: Research Institute for Strategic Studies.
Firoozjaeian, A. Sharipour, M. Farzam, N. (2016). “Cultural capital and social tolerance (mimicry model test)”, Social Development, 11 (2), 33-64. (Persian).
Galeotti, A.E. (2001). “Do we need toleration as a moral virtue”, Respublica ,Vol (3), 273-292.
Gandhron, S. (1999). Tolerance in Western political thought. translated by Abbas Ghaderi. Tehran: Ney. (Persian).
Ghaderzadeh, O. Nasrollahi, Y. (2019). “Social Tolerance in Multicultural Communities: A Survey Study of Miandoab Tribes”, Social Sciences. 33, 89-133. (Persian).
Ghazinezhad, M. Akbarnia, E. (2017). “Religiosity: Social Tolerance or Social Distance (A Survey of Muslims and Christians in Tehran)”, Social Studies and Research in Iran. 1, 21-40. (Persian)
Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Cambridge: Polity.
Gieling, M. Thijs, J. Verkuyten, M. (2010). “Tolerance of Practices by Muslim Actors: An Integrative Social-Developmental Perspective”, Child Development, 5, 2005-2010.
Haghi, N. Sufikhojasteh, A. Onagh, N. (2019). “Investigating the relationship between the level of religiosity and the level of social tolerance among university students in Kolaleh”. Sociology Studies. 42, 103-124. (Persian).
Harell, A. (2010). “Political Tolerance, Racist Speech, and the Influence of Social Networks”, Social Science Quarterly, 3, 724-740.
Hjerm, M. Eger, M.A. Bohman, A. Connolly, F.F. (2020). “A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference”, Social Indicators Research, 147, 897–919.
Holab, R. (1999). Critique in the Public Sphere, translated by Hossein Basharieh, Tehran: Ney. (Persian).
Huntington, S. Nelson, J. (1976). No Easy Choice: Political Participation in Developing Countries, Cambridge: Harvard University press.
Jahanbaglou, R. (2007). Differences and Tolerance, Tehran: Markaz. (Persian).
Jahangiri, J. Afrasiabi, H. (2011). “Study of Shiraz families on the factors and consequences of tolerance”, Applied Sociology. 22(3), 153-175. (Persian)
Jalaian Bakhshandeh, V. Ghasemi, V. Iman, M. (2018). “Sociological explanation of the relationship between social trust and social tolerance based on Giddens' theory of structuring”, Social Development, 12 (4), 7-32. (persian)
Javadi, A. (2016). “Khuzestan, the rainbow of tribes”. News Agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran. September 3. Online at:
Kasara, K. (2013). “Separate and Suspicious: Local Social and Political Context and Ethnic Tolerance”, Kenya, the Journal of Politics, 4, 921-936.
Katozian, H. (2012). Iranians from ancient to contemporary. translated by Hossein Shahidi. Tehran: Markaz. (Persian).
King, P. (1976). Toleration, London: George Allen & Unwin.
Lee, F.L.F. (2014). “Tolerated One Way but Not the Other: Levels and Determinants of Social and Political Tolerance in Hong Kong”, Social Indicators Research, 2, 711-727.
Miklikowska, M. (2016). Like parent, like child? Development of prejudice and tolerance towards immigrants, British Journal of Psychology, 107 (1), 95–116.
Momeni, M. Iman, M. Rajabi, M. (2016). “Sociological study of the relationship between religiosity patterns and various types of social tolerance among students of Shiraz University”, Culture in Islamic University, 6 (20), 321-340. (Persian).
Nozari, H.A. (2002). Habermas Rereading, An Introduction to Habermas Thoughts and Theories, Tehran: Cheshmeh. (Persian).
Phelps, EW. (2004). “White Students 'Attitudes towards Asian American Students at the University of Washington: a Study of Social Tolerance and Cosmopolitanism”, Dissertation. Department of Sociology, New York University, Dissertation, Department of Sociology, New York: University.
Qian, H. (2013). “Diversity Versus Tolerance: The Social Drivers of Innovation and Entrepreneurship in US Cities”, Urban Studies, 13, 2718-2735.
Rapp, C. (2017). “Shaping tolerant attitudes towards immigrants: The role of welfare state expenditures”, Journal of European Social Policy, 27(1), 40–56.
Rapp, C., & Ackermann, K. (2016). “The consequences of social intolerance on non-violent protest”, European Political Science Review, 8(4), 567–588.
Rapp, C., & Freitag, M. (2015). Teaching tolerance? Associational diversity and tolerance formation. Political Studies, 63(5), 1031–1051.
Rostami, S. (2013). “Citizenship Rights and Legitimate Freedoms”, Research Journal of Islamic Jurisprudence and Fundamentals of Law, No. 1
Saber, S. (2005). Investigating the Relationship between the Level and Types of Religiosity and Social Tolerance, Master Thesis, Sociology, Tehran: Tehran Teacher Training University. (persian).
Sharepour, M. Azadarmaki, M. Askari, A. (2009). “Investigating the relationship between social capital and tolerance among students of social sciences faculties of Tehran and Allameh Tabatabai universities”, Iran Sociology. 1, 64-98. (persian).
Sintang, S. Khambali, K. (2013). “The culture of tolerance in families of new Muslims convert”, Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 15, 1665-1675.
Stouffer, S. (1992). Communism, Conformity & Civil Liberties: A Cross-Section of The Nation Speaks Its Mind. New Brunswick New Jersey: Transactionp Ublishers.
Triandafyllidou, A. Kouki, H. (2013), “Muslim immigrants and the Greek nation: The emergence of nationalist intolerance”, Ethnicities, 6, 709-728.
Voget, W.P. (1997). Tolerance and education: Learning to live with diversity and difference. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Wallers, M. (2012). About tolerance. translated by Saleh Najafi. Tehran: Pardis Danesh. (Persian).
Williams, B. (1998). “Is tolerance a virtue impossible?”, Kian, 45, 51-48. (Persian).
Yeates, O.D. (2007). Tolerating on Faith: Locke, Williams, and the Origins of Political Toleration. Dissertation, Duke University.
Zalizadeh, M. Bagheri, M. Moltafet, H. (2018). “Study of family factors affecting social tolerance (Case study: Students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz)”, Applied Sociology, 70, 129-146. (Persian).
Zalizadeh, M. Hosseinzadeh, A. Zalizadeh, M. (2015). “Sociological study of the dimensions of social tolerance with emphasis on personality traits (Case study: students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz)”. Applied Sociology, 26 (4), 149-164. (Persian).
Zamani, T. Mohseni Tabrizi, A. Shahmohammadi, A. (2020). “Interpreting social intolerance from the perspective of academic elites and presenting a theoretical model”, Social Studies and Research in Iran. 9(2), 393-421. (Persian).