تحلیل گفتمان معنای توسعه جوامع روستایی در برنامه‌های پنج ساله دولت بعد از انقلاب اسلامی در ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم اجتماعی دانشگاه آزاد واحد شوشتر، شوشتر، ایران

2 استاد گروه جامعه‌شناسی دانشگاه آزاد واحد دهاقان، دهاقان، ایران

3 استادیار گروه جامعه‌شناسی دانشگاه آزاد واحد دهاقان، دهاقان، ایران

10.22055/qjsd.2021.16832

چکیده

هدف اصلی این مطالعه تحلیل گفتمان توسعه جامعه روستایی در دولت‌های بعد از انقلاب اسلامی است. قلمرو تحقیق سه دولت کارگزاران، اصلاحات و اصول‌گرایی را (1392-1368) شامل می‌شود. گزاره‌ها، یا رخداد ارتباطی در قالب متن برنامه‌های 5 ساله توسعه و برخی نوشته‌های جریانات سیاسی که هر دولت برآمده از آن بوده، جمع‌آوری شده است. نوع تحقیق کیفی است، از تلفیق تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی فرکلاف و لاکلاو و موفه به‌عنوان چارچوب مفهومی و روش تحقیق بهره گرفته شد. یافته‏ها نشان می‌دهد که در عرصه منازعه سیاسی از طریق تمایز «ما» و «آنها» طرد و حاشیه‌رانی صورت گرفته است. سپس هژمونی گفتمان غالب در منازعه بر معنای توسعه تعیین‌کننده بوده است، که فرضیه تحقیق را پشتیبانی می‌کند. یافته نشان می‌دهد که گفتمان توسعه روستایی متأثر از گفتمان کلان در هر سه دولت، بر مدلول، دال «عمران روستا» توسعه با معنای «نوسازی»، صورت‌بندی شده است. گزاره‌ها نشان می‌دهد که کشاورزی، تولید، اشتغال پایدار و صنعت در گفتمان هر سه دولت، دال‌های شناور بوده، ولی تأکید و معنا مترتب بر آنها یکسان نبوده است. یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهد که از جمله عوامل تبیینی مؤثر بر معنای توسعه روستا در گفتمان دولت‌ها، رویکرد از بالا به پایین، اتکاه به اقتصاد نفتی یا «نفت حکومتی»، پیشینه اقتصاد روستایی، کمرنگ بودن فرایند توسعه از پایین و بخشی‌نگری قابل تأمل بود. نگاه از پایین به بالا به توسعه در دولت اصلاحات پررنگ‌تر بوده است. گستره عمران یا نوسازی روستایی در گفتمان دولت‌های بعد از انقلاب بسیار چشمگیر بوده است. اما به دلیل پیامد گفتمانی در نتیجه معنای مترتب بر توسعه روستایی متأثر از گفتمان دولت‌ها، از جمله، فقر و نابرابری و خالی شدن روستاها که موجب افزایش حاشیه‌نشینی و فرودستان شهری گردیده بود، به دشواری فرایند راه توسعه منتهی شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Discourse Analysis of Economic Development of Rural Communities in Five-Year Plans of Iran's Post-Revolutionary Governments

نویسندگان [English]

  • Manouchehr Kordzangenh 1
  • Fereydoun Vahida 2
  • Ali Asghar Mohajerani 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Social Sciences, Shushtar Branch, Azad University, Shushtar, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Sociology, Azad University, Dehaghan Branch, Dehaghan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Azad University, Dehaghan Branch, Dehaghan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The present study aims at investigating discourse analysis of economic development of rural communities in the Iranian post-revolutionary governments. Three governments of Executives of Construction (Kargozaran), Reformist, and Conservative (1989-2013) comprised the research scope. The propositions or communicative events were collected as the texts of development five-year plans and certain political movements based on which the governments took step. This study is a qualitative research which used a combination of Fairclough, Laclau and Mouffe Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) methods as the conceptual framework and methodology basis. Findings show that distinctions made between “self” and “other” have caused exclusion and marginalization in political conflicts. The dominant discourse hegemony in conflicts has been effective and decisive over the concept of development, and this supports the research. The findings demonstrate that among the effective explanatory factors on rural development concept in discourses of the three governments are top-down approach, reliance on oil-based economy or "oil state", rural economy history, unnoticed grassroots development process, and paying more attention to certain sectors. Also, the bottom-up development approach was more significant during the Reformist government. Rural development and renovation have been held a significant position in the post-revolutionary governments. However, on account of discursive consequences resulted from the rural development position affected by discourses of governments including poverty, inequality, and loss of rural population which caused increased suburbanization and urban poor, the development process turned to be an uphill struggle.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Discourse Analysis
  • Economic Development
  • Rural Communities
  • Five-Year Plans
  • Governments
  • Islamic Revolution of Iran
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