Investigating The Relationship Between Virtual Leisure Time and Generational Change

Document Type : Research Paper


Assistant Professor, Department of Youth and Generation Relations, Institute of Humanities and Social Studies, University Jihad, Tehran, Iran



Virtual leisure is one of the new type of leisure in today society that has significant impact on intergenerational relationships. Virtual social networks with quick and easy access, overlap in time and space and provide special conditions for leisure. The main purpose of the article is to study the relationship between duration of use of virtual social network as virtual leisure and audience of these networks and its effect on intergenerational relationships; with consideration of zimel and mead theories. Survey method were applied with 1200 people as sample at national level. Results indicates there is a relationship between generational period and leisure in virtual social networks, there is also a reverse relationship duration of use of the virtual social networks and interaction between generations. With increase the time duration uses of these leisure, reduction occurs in intergenerational communication in the family. Different generational groups communicate in virtual social networks. There is no relationship between intergenerational communication and audience in the virtual social networks, and communication with family and relatives, did not result strengthening generational interaction. Increased membership in social networks has caused change the leisure pattern towards an active in cyberspace; such condition has the considerable effect on intergenerational relationships and changes in lifestyle. Also, spending virtual collective leisure time, even if with the family, does not lead to the strengthening of generational relationships.


Ahmadi, A.; Ahyaei, P. (2013). Study of generation gap and related factors case study of Sarab high school students, Cultural sociology, 4, winter. (Persian).
Arjmandi, H.; Hasanpour, M.; Arjmand Seyahpoosh, E.; Arjman Seyahpoosh, B. (2013). “Generational Gap and its effecting socio- cultural factors among students of Islamic Azad Universty Andimeshk Breanch”, Journal of Sociological Studies of Youth, 4(11), Autumn. (Persian).
Ashori, T. (2017). Qualitative study of perception of intergenerational leisure in Hamedan, M. A. dissertation, Faculty of economic and Social Sciences, Buali sina University. (Persian).
Azadarmaki, T.; Ghafari, G. R. (2004). Generational Sociology in Iran, Research Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences in ACECR, Tehran. (Persian).
Babaei, F.; Kurdi, N.; Hashem Zehi, N. (2013). The Impact of Family Series on TV on the Lifestyle and Leisure, book of articles in national congress on Leisure and lifestyles, ministry of sport and Youths. (Persian).
 Bahram, A. (1988). Investigating how students spend their leisure time with an emphasis on sports activities, M.A. desertation, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiyt Modares University. (Persian).
Bourdieu, P. (1984). distinction, translated by Karl Smith, London, Oxford University.
Danesh, P.; Zakeri Nasabadi, Z; Abdulahi, A. S. (2014). “Sociological analysis of the generation gap in Iran”, Cultural Sociology Quarterly, 5 (3) Autumn. (Persian).
Ebrahimi, G. A.; Razeghi, N.; Moslemi Petroodi, R. (2011). “Leisure time and social factors effecting it a case study of 15-64 people in Joybar city”, Applied Sociology quartery, 22 (44) Winter. (Persian).
Eman, M. T.; Rouhani, A. (2013). “Islamic identity and competing identities (global, national and ethnic identity) Case study of Shiraz University students”, cultural studies quarterly, 6 (1) Spring. (Persian).
Enayat, H., Ghafari, D. (2015). “Evaluation of Women's Satisfaction from Quality Services Providing Leisure Services in public spaces case Study of Required of Kermanshah historical City Public Services”, women and Family studies, 8 (29) Autumn. (Persian).
Enayat, H., Hossaini, M. (2013). Gender Studies on Leisure patterns among Youths in Shiraz city and its relation to different capitals, book of articles in national congress on Leisure and lifestyles, ministry of sport and Youths. (Persian).
Ester Cerin, E. Lesli (2008). How Socio- Economic Status Contributes to Participate On in Leisure- Time, Journal of Social Science And Medicine.
Fakuhi, N., Ansari Mahabadi, F. (2003). “Leisure and the formation of cultural personality A case study of two girls' high schools in Tehran”, Letters of Anthropology, (1) 4, Autumn & Winter. (Persian).
Farokhnia, R., Lotfi, A. (2011). Survey the effect of internet and cyber space on Fashionism, Quarterly of Cultural Studies and Communication, 7 (22), Spring. (Persian).
Fazeli, M. (2002). Consumption and lifestyle, Sobh Sadegh Publication, Qum. (Persian).
Giddens, A. (2007). Sociology, Tr. H. Chavoshian, Neai Publication. (Persian).
Jafari, R; Azizi, M; Nobakht Haghigi, M. B. (2014). “Investigating the factors affecting theater culture and determining its position in the leisure time of different group in Tehran”, Social-Cultural Strategy Quarterly, 3(11) Summer. (Persian).
Khajenooeri, B; Moghadas, A. (2008). “Study of social and cultural factors affecting the amount of leisure time spent; Case study: High school students in Aabadeh city, Social and Humanities Studies”, special edition on Social researches, No 2. (Persian).
Mead, M. (1986). Maturity in Samoa, Tr. M. Milani, Vaeis Publication, Tehran. (Persian).
Moeinifar, H. S., Mohammd Khani, N. (2011). “Representing the consumption pattern of an American family: The Simpsons in their spare time”, Cultural Studies Quarterly, 4 (1) Spring. (Persian).
Monadi, M. (2008). Leisure and its Globalization Challenge’s compare two generation, Cultural Studies and Communication Quarterly. (Persian).
Montazrghaem, M., Shaghasemi, E. (2008). “Internet and Social Changes in Iran: Meta- annalistically Glance with emphasis to Youths”, Iran Sociological Magazine, 9 (3, 4), Autumn. (Persian).
National Youth Organization (2002). Survey of Youth Leisure Time Condition, a National Report, National Youth Organization. (Persian).
National Youth Organization (2005). World Wide situation of Youth Leisure, Bureau of research and planning, National Youth Organization. (Persian).
 Nazareth, L. (2007). the leisure economy, How Changing Demographics, Economics, and Generational Attitudes Will Reshape Our Lives and Our Industries, John Wiley & Sons Cand , Ltd Canada.
Nazarian, N. (2008). Comparative study of leisure time among Youths and adults a case study of Shiraz City, M. A. dissertation, Shiraz University. (Persian).
Pahlevan, M; Barzigar, S. F. (2011). “Investigating the tendency to spend leisure time among high school girls in Amol city”, Quarterly of Sociological Studies of Youth 2(5) Autumn. (Persian).
Pourhalabi, R; Abedini, S. (2012). “Investigating the sociological factors affecting the phenomenon of intergenerational cohesion among (new generation) and comparisons with parents (old generation) ”, Quarterly of Sociological Studies of Youth 2(5) Autumn. (Persian).
Rafatjah, M. (2005). Gender and Leisure in Areas of urban life, Anthropology Quarterly, 4. (Persian).
Saburi Jahanshahi, H., Tavakolinia, N. (2012). “Investigating the impact of national media on creating a generation gap”, Media Studies, 7 (19), Winter. (Persian).
Sanei, M. H. (2001). Survey of leisure time of adolescent students in Sanandaj city (central and marginal areas), M.A. dissertation, Olum Behzisti University. (Persian).
Saraei, H., Savadian, P. (2011). “Leisure over the generations, a case study of high school girls in Garmsar and their mothers”, Quarterly of Iran Social Development, 4 (1), Winter. (Persian).
Saraei, M. H., Rustaei, M., Eshnoei, A. (2012). “Factors affecting leisure time in urban areas of Iran: A case study of District 8 of Mashhad”, Regional Planning Quarterly, 2 (7), Autumn. (Persian).
Sarukhani, B., Mirzaei Malakan, M., Tavakoli, Z. (2013). “Sociological study of the impact of leisure time on the development of national youth identity”, Cultural Sociology quarterly, 4 (3), Autumn. (Persian).
Shaghasem, A. (2006). “An overview of the impact of cyberspace on communication theories”, World Media Magazine, 1 (3), Autumn. (Persian).
Shakuri, A., Rafatjah, M. (2008). “Internet and social identity”, World Media Magazine, 3(1), Spring & Summer. (Persian).
Smith, H. (2002). The Generation Gap: managing technology- Mediated Personal Social networks, Chimera, Institute for sociotechnical Innovation and research, No. 2, Sept
Statistic Center of Iran (2014). Statistical Yearbook, National Statistics Portal of Iran. (Persian).
Surien, V., TanKard, J. (2003) Communication Theories, Tr. A. Dehghan, Tehran University Publication. (Persian).
Tajek, M. R. (2007). Generation gap in todays’ Iran, Strategic Research Center of the Expediency Council, Tehran. (Persian).
Yusefi, N. (2009). Study of the TV role in Intergenerational relationships with emphasis to cultural values, Islamic Republic of Iran Broad Casting Research Center. (Persian).
Zamanian, A. (2008). Fundamental changes in the family institution in recent decades in Iran, Deputy of Research, Islamic Azad University, Tehran. (Persian).
Zokaei, M. S.; Fathinia, M. (2013). “Method of representing intergenerational relations in popular Iranian serials”, Cultural Sociology quarterly, 4 (4), Winter. (Persian).