شرکت ‌شهرهای نفتی و روایت توسعه و تضاد (مطالعه تجربه آبادان)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دوره دکتری جامعه‌شناسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه جامعه‌شناسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 استاد گروه جامعه‌شناسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

10.22055/qjsd.2020.16733

چکیده

تعریف و مشخصات شهر همواره در قلب بحث‌های نظریه اجتماعی قرار دارد؛ به این دلیل که شهر محل کانونی تولید و انباشت ثروت، قدرت، روابط طبقاتی و اجتماعی، تضادهای اجتماعی ـ سیاسی، معماری، خاطره و هویت جمعی، نظم اجتماعی و تولید نظام‌های نشانه‌ای و نمادی است. شهر، نه تنها روابط قدرت را آشکار می‌کند، زندگی روزمره‌ی مردم و نحوه مقاومت آن‌ها را نیز به رُخ می‌کشد. شهر آبادان در دهه آخر قرن سیزدهم (1290) تا سال 1357 و تا امروز، شهری ساخته شده توسط سرمایه‌داری نفتی، محل بروز توسعه و تضاد شهری و شکل‌گیری انواع پدیده‌های اجتماعی ـ شهری بوده است. در این پژوهش از روش چندگانه و تکنیک‌های مشاهدات میدانی، منابع اسنادی و مصاحبه‌های عمیق و منابع تاریخی و تاریخ شفاهی برای بررسی توسعه و تضاد در شهر استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که آبادان، هم تجربه توسعه اجتماعی ـ فرهنگی و هم تجربه تضاد، دوگانگی، سلطه، سلسله مراتب و روابط طبقاتی بوده است. در سال‌های 1290 تا 1310، 1310 تا 1330، و از اوایل دهه 1330 تا سال 1357، این تجربه توسعه و تضاد، دچار تغییر و تحولاتی شده است، اما روند اصلی، افزایش توسعه و کاهش تضاد بوده است و به‌ویژه در دهه‌های 1340 و 1350، ایده آبادان توسعه‌یافته که در زمان ملّی شدن صنعت نفت شکل گرفت، موجب پیشی گرفتن توسعه از تضاد بوده است، اما به‌طور کلی هر دو این روایت‌ها در کنار هم و تحت تأثیر صنعت نفت شکل گرفته‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Oil Cities Company and the Narrative of Development and Conflict (Study of Abadan Experience)

نویسندگان [English]

  • iman mombeni 1
  • Abdolhossein Kalantari 2
  • Seyyed Mohamad Ali Tavakol kosari 3
1 Graduated from the University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran,
3 Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The city has long been a strategic site for the exploration of many major subjects such as social relations, socio-political conflicts, social order, class and power. This places cities at the heart of sociology. A space capable of producing and accumulating wealth, power, architecture, memory, collective identity and symbolic systems. The city of Abadan in the last decade of the thirteenth century (1910) until 1977 and to this day has been a city built by oil capitalism which makes it a site for urban development and conflict and this leads to form a variety of socio-urban phenomena. In this study, multiple methods and techniques includes field observation, assessing documents and historical sources, in-depth interviews, and oral history were used to study the development and conflict of the city. The results show that Abadan has been both an experience of socio-cultural development as well as an experience of conflict, duality, domination, hierarchy, and class relations. In the periods of 1912 to 1932, 1932 to 1952, and the early of 1952s to 1979, the process of development and conflict has changed, but the main trend has been to increase development and decrease conflict. Especially in the 1962s and 1972s, the idea of a developed Abadan that emerged during the nationalization of the oil industry sustained the development rather than conflict, but in general, both of these narratives have been formed together and under the influence of the oil industry.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Oil industry
  • Company Town
  • Urban Space
  • local Community
  • Corporative Communi
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