چگونگی درک زنان روستایی از توانمندی خود

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه جامعه‌شناسی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد توسعه روستایی دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

3 استادیار گروه کارآفرینی و توسعه روستایی دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

10.22055/qjsd.2020.26041.1685

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر در نظر دارد این مسئله را به پرسش بکشد که زنان روستایی چه درکی از توانمندی خود دارند. روش بررسی این سؤال با رویکرد کیفی و با بهره‌گیری از روش گراندد تئوری است. جامعه مورد مطالعه شامل زنان روستایی ساکن در 11 روستای حومه شهر ایلام است؛ که بر اساس نمونه‌گیری هدفمند تعداد 30 نفر از آنان مورد مصاحبه از نوع نیمه ساختاریافته قرار گرفت. استراتژی تحلیل داده‌ها بر مبنای کدگذاری سه مرحله‌ای باز، محوری و انتخابی بوده که محصول آن در یک مدل پارادایمی ترسیم گردید؛ بر این اساس تعداد 35 مفهوم و 11 مقوله به دست آمد؛ که نظریه مبنایی در مدل استخراج ‌شده، هژمونی گفتمان جنسیتی است. بر مبنای این نظریه زنان روستایی مورد مطالعه با موانعی از قبیل بسته بودن سیستم اقتصادی، فقدان حمایت نهادی، عدم دسترسی به مراکز مشاوره‌ای و موانع فرهنگی برای توانمندی خود مواجه هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

How Rural Women's Perception of their Empowerment

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yarmohammad Ghasemi 1
  • zahra azizi 2
  • hossein mahdizadeh 3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
2 Master student of Rural Development, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Entrepreneurship and Rural Development, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
چکیده [English]

The present research intends to take this issue into the question that rural women have what perception of their empowerment. The research method is qualitative approach using grounded theory. The study population consists of rural women resident in 11 villages in the suburb of Ilam which is based on purposive sampling 30 of them were interviewed semi-structured. The strategy of data analysis is based on three-steps open coding axial and selective, which its product was drawn in a paradigmatic model. Accordingly, 35 concepts and 11 categories were obtained. Which basic theory in derived model is Hegemonic Discourse of Gender. According to this theory, studied rural women are encountered with obstacles such as closed economic system, lack of institutional support, lack of access to these centers and cultural barriers to their ability.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Empowerment
  • Rural Women
  • grounded theory
  • Hegemonic Discourse of Gender
Abayomi, A. & Abadat, A. (2014). “The Roles of Selected NGOs in Economic Empowerment of Rural Women in Ibadanland”, Nigeria. Academy of Management Journal, 39:PP.483–504.
Abolfathzadeh, Z., Yousefi and Amini, A. (2015). “Evaluation of effective factors in empowerment of rural women in Isfahan”, Women's Research Journal, Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies, Year 7, Issue 1, Spring 2016,1-2.27. (Persian).
 Ansari, Hamid (1995), “Rural Women's Cooperatives, Necessity or Wave”, Quarterly Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, Special Issue on Women in Agriculture, Vo 3, Number 10, pp. 25-58. (Persian).
Arabi, M. and Fayyazi, M. (2006). “Typology of Perspectives and Empowerment Patterns”, Quarterly Journal of Industrial Management, Vo 5, Number 13, pp. 67-88. (Persian).
Avlaii, S. (2006).“Gender Analysis of Agricultural Participation in Rural Society of Kermanshah”, Master Thesis in Rural Development, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University. (Persian).
Awumbila, M. (2006). “Gender equality and poverty in Ghana: implications for poverty reduction strategies”, GeoJournal, Vol 67,PP:149–161.
Azkia, M., Ghaffari, Gh. (2013). Rural Development with Emphasis on Rural Society of Iran, Tehran: Ney, 4th edition. (Persian).
Bagheri, Sh (2009). “Family Management Model”, Shiite Women Extension Scientific Quarterly, Vo 6, No. 20. (Persian).
Barazandeh Moghadam, F. (2009). “How to interact with the executive bodies related to women's cooperatives”, a collection of articles of the first meeting of women's cooperatives. Tehran: Publishing Center of the Central Organization of Rural Cooperatives of Iran.61-77. (Persian).
Chaudhry, I. S. & Nosheen, F. (2009). “The determinants of women empowerment in southern Punjab (Pakistan): an empirical analysis”, European Journal of Social Sciences, 10(2), 216-229. Retrieved from http://www.eurojournals.com/ejss_10205 .pdf.
Cohen, A. (2000) Anthony Giddens in The Great Sociological Thinkers, edited by Rob Stones, translated by Mehrdad Mirdamadi, Tehran, Markaz Publishing. (Persian).
Coin, B. (2010). "Introduction to Sociology", Journal of Sociology, Islamic Azad University - Ashtian Branch. number 7. (Persian).
Grossi, S. Adinehzad, R. (2010). “Study of the relationship between social factors and the conflict of job and family plans among working women in Kerman”, Journal of Social Sciences, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, pp121-139. (Persian).
Marsh, D., Stoker, J. (2005). Methods and Theory in Political Science, translated by Amir Mohammad. (Persian).
Conger. J. Rabindra, and Kanungo, N. H. (1998). “The Empowerment Process: Intgrating Theory and Pratice”, Academy of Management Review,Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 41-78.
Darabi, M. Gaini, A. and Momivand, P. (2009). “Study of cultural factors affecting the tendency to sports activities in women 25 to 40 years old in Tehran”, Research in Sports Science, No. 24, Fall 2009, pp. 77-88. (Persian).
Falah Haghighi; N. (2015). “Micro Entrepreneurship and Empowerment of Rural Women: Challenges Ahead”, Journal of Entrepreneurship in Agriculture, Volume 2, Number 1, Spring 2015. (Persian).
Flick, O. (2008). An Introduction to Qualitative Research, translated by Hadi Jalili, Tehran, Ney Publishing. (Persian).
Farzizadeh, Z.; Motavaseli, M. and Taleb, M. (2013). “Sociological study of social and economic empowerment, indigenous perception of it, factors affecting its growth and barriers in rural women”, Journal of Rural Development, Volume 5, Number 1, Spring and Summer 2013. (Persian).
Ghafari, Gh.; Daraii, H. and Jahangiri, P. (2009). "A Review of Empowerment Indicators with Emphasis on Women Heads of Household, in the General Department of Women Affairs of Tehran Municipality", Proceedings of the Second Conference on Empowerment and Empowerment of Women Heads of Household, Tehran; General Department of Women Affairs of Tehran Municipality. (Persian).
Ghanbari, Y.; And Ansari, R. (2015). “Identifying and Explaining Social and Economic Factors Affecting the Empowerment of Rural Women (Case Study: Rostam County)”, Journal of Rural Research and Planning, Vol. 4, No. 3, Fall 2015, Serial Issue 11. (Persian).
Craib Y. (2009). Modern Social Theory by Parsons Tahabermas, translated by Abbas Mokhir, Tehran: Agah Publishing. (Persian).
Kurdistani, Gh. (2008). Measurement and Reporting of Human Capital, Auditor Quarterly.No. 41. (Persian).
Giddens, A, (1984). the Constitution of Society, London, Polity.
Juggar, E. (2002). E-government lesson and approaches, Available at www. Newcentury.com/info/Lesson.
Kalantari, Kh.; Shaban, A.; Fami, H.; and Soroush Mehr, H. (2010). “Study of Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors of Economic Empowerment of Rural Women (Case Study of Hamedan County)”, Rural Development, 1 (2): 107-124. (Persian).
Kalantari, Kh.; Shaban, A.; Fami, H. and S. Mehr, Homa (2010). “Study of Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors of Economic Empowerment of Rural Women (Case Study of Hamadan City)”, Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 1, No. 2, Spring and Summer 2010. (Persian).
Khuluti, M. (2009). “Study of the level of empowerment of housewives and the factors affecting it in Shiraz”, Social Research, 2009, 151-171. (Persian).
Lincoln, Y. S. & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Retrieved June 20, 2011 from http://www.qualres.org/HomeLinc-3684.html.
Mehdi, N.; Vahdat, K. and Modab, H. (2018). “Study of the effect of social capital components on the empowerment of women with home-based businesses (case study of Razan city)”, Normagz Specialized Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2, Summer 2018. (Persian).
Mirfakhraee, T. (2004). "Discourse Analysis Process", Tehran, Office of Media Studies and Development. (Persian).
Movaahed, M. (2003). Women political participation and effective socialParsons, T. (1995), Family, Socialization & Interaction Process.
Najar Nahavandi, M. and Abkhosh, M. (2015). “Assessing the Impact of Citizenship Education on Women's Empowerment (Case Study: District 6 of Tehran Municipality)”, Women's Quarterly in Development and Politics, Vol. 13, No. 1, Spring 2015: 131-149. (Persian).
Ologunde, A. O. Adecola, O. G. (2010). “Globalintegration, household survival, and economic”, Journal of Nigeria Studies,Vol. 1, No. 1.
Pearson, K. (2005). The meaning of modernity, Christopher Pearson's conversation with Anthony Giddens, translated by Ali Asghar Saeedi, Tehran, Kavir Publications. (Persian).
Qolipour, A. and Rahimian, A. (2009). “The relationship between economic, cultural and educational factors with the empowerment of women heads of households”, Social Welfare Research Quarterly, Eleventh Year, No. 40. (Persian).
Rouhani, A.; Anbarloo, M. and Yousefi Taleghani, A. (2017). “The place of rural empowerment in the social development of rural settlements”, Journal of Geographical Engineering of the Land, Vol. 1, No. 2, Fall and Winter 2009, pp. 107-120. (Persian).
Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (2012). "Fundamentals of Qualitative Research, Techniques and Stages of Production of Underlying.
Sadeghi Fasaee, S. (2010). “The necessity of theorizing women's issues in the field of research and theory”, Journal of Women Cultural Council. 13 thyears. 50: 185-228. (Persian).
Sadoughi, M. (2007). “Reflections on Religious Structures and Their Place in Health Psychology”, Bi-Quarterly Journal of Islamic Studies and Psychology, Vol. 1, No. 1, Fall and Winter 2007, 45-68. (Persian).
Safari Shali, R. (2013). Guide to developing a research plan (proposal writing) (fifth edition). Tehran: Society and Culture Publications. (Persian).
Sarason, Barbara R. Pierce, Gregory R. Bannerman, Ann; Sarason, Irwin G. (1993). “Investigating the antecedents of perceived social support: Parents' views of and behavior toward their children”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 65(5), Nov 1993 1071-1085.
Sarason, I. G. Levine, H. M. Basham, R. B. and Sarason, B. R. (1983). “Assessing social support: The social support questionnaire”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44 127-39.
Shahriari, A. (2008). "Empowerment Studies of Rural Women in Sistan and Baluchestan and Its Impact on Entrepreneurship", M.Sc. Thesis. (Persian).
Tajik, M. R. (2011). Post-politics, theory and method, Tehran: Ney. (Persian).
Taylor, H. (1989). Scarlett′s women: Gone with wind and its female fans.
Tower, Sargent. L. (1999). Contemporary political Ideologies. Philadelphia: Fort worth.
Turner, Jonathan H. (2003). The Structure of Sociological Theory, United States,Wadswort.
Valevi, Bryson. S. (1999). Feminist Debates. London: Macmilan.
Warth L. & M., Koparanova (2012). "Empowering Women for Sustainable Development", United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.
Zahedi, Sh. (2007). "Women and Development", Tehran, Cultural Research Office. (Persian).
Zarmavar, M. and Badragheh, A. (2015). "Empowerment Theory", (Second Edition), translated by Ebrahim Afshar, Tehran: Nashre Ney. (Persian).Strategies for Rural Women and Its Impact on Poverty Reduction Management", National Conference on New Ideas in Agriculture, Environment and Tourism, December 20, 2015. (Persian).
Shamloo, Q. (2004). Psychopathology, Tehran, Roshd, seventh edition, p.103. (Persian).
Zhongming, W. and Z. Zang (2005). “Strategic human resources, innovation and entrepreneurship fit, A cross–regional comparative model”, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 26 No. 6.