ضعف کنترل‌های رسمی و بازتولید مجرمیت: بررسی کیفی مجرمین قتل عمد و آدم‌ربایی در شهر کرمان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری حقوق کیفری و جرم‌شناسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رفسنجان، رفسنجان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم اجتماعی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار گروه حقوق دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رفسنجان، رفسنجان، ایران

10.22055/qjsd.2020.15401

چکیده

افزایش قابل توجه ارتکاب قتل عمد و آدم‌ربایی، نیازمند کنکاش عمیق پیرامون یافتن علل و عوامل ارتکاب این دو جرم مهم می‌باشد. ضرورت انجام پژوهش بین رشته‌ای منطبق با آموزه‌های جرم‌شناسی و جامعه‌شناختی می‌تواند افق مهمی در جامعه‌ی کنونی علمی ایجاد نماید. پژوهش حاضر به بررسی کنترل رسمی و مجرمیت (آدم‌ربایی و قتل) در شهر کرمان پرداخته است. روش‌شناسی پژوهش مبتنی بر روش کیفی نظریه‌ی زمینه‌ای است. بیست نفر از مجرمین به‌عنوان مشارکت‌کننده در این پژوهش با روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند و با استفاده از استراتژی حداکثر تنوع و معیار اشباع نظری انتخاب شدند. برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها از مصاحبه‌ی عمیق استفاده شد. نهایتاًتجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها منجر به خلق پنج مقوله گردید که عبارتند از: دادستانی ـ سلطه تحقیق بر تعقیب، ضعف سیستم دیدبانی پلیس، زندانبه مثابه تشدیدکننده‌ی جرم، بدسرپرستی و استیگمای بهزیستی؛ و مدرسه و تجربه خشونت. به‌طور کلی، یافته‌ها حکایت از این دارد که ضعف کنترل‌های رسمی از قبیل دادستانی، زندان، بهزیستی و مدرسه می‌تواند زمینه‌ساز وقوع جرم باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Weakness of Formal Controls and Reproduction of Criminality: Qualitative Study of Criminals Sentenced to Murder and Kidnapping in Kerman

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahboobeh mirzabeigi 1
  • daryoush boustani 2
  • Bagher Shamloo 3
  • AHMAD AHMADI MOUSAVI 4
1 PhD in Criminal Law and Criminology, Department of Law, Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan Branch, Rafsanjan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Social Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan Branch, Rafsanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

A significant increase in the commission of murder and kidnapping requires a deep investigation into the causes and factors behind the committing of these two masses. The necessity of conducting interdisciplinary research in accordance with criminological and sociological doctrines can create an important horizon in the current scientific community. Underlying theory has investigated formal control and criminality (murder and kidnaping) in city of the Kerman. Methodology of the study is based on qualitative method of Grounded Theory. 20 criminals as the participants of the research were selected via purposive sampling and Use the maximum variation strategy and theoretical saturation criteria. Tool of collecting data was in-depth interview. Finally data analysis culminated in emerging five categories which are: Prosecutor: overcoming of investigation on pursuit; Weakness of police surveillance system; prison as the intensifier of the crime; mismanagement and stigma of welfare organization; school and experiencing of the violence. Generally finding indicates that weakness of formal controls such as prosecutor, prison, welfare organization and school prepares occurrence of crime.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Formal Control
  • Criminality
  • Murder
  • Kidnaping
  • Kerman
Abbaszadeh, M. Abedini, I. Hasani, M, R. Mubarak Bakhshayesh, M. (2012). “Social turmoil and compliance with traffic laws (Case study: Tabriz city drivers)”, Strategic Research Journal of Security and Social Order, first year, No. 4. 19-38. (Persian).
Ahmadi, H. (2016). Sociology of Deviations, Tehran: Samt Publications. (Persian).
Amir Kaveh, S (1997). Social supervision, Journal of Humanities. No. 21. (Persian).
Ayyar, A. Khani, S. Khazri, F. (2012). “Investigating the role of social support and control in crime among ordinary youth and offenders”, Police Knowledge Quarterly. No. 57, 9-40. (Persian).
Beirne, P., Messerschmidt, J, W. (2011). Criminology: A sociological Approach, Oxford University Press.
Birou, A. (1991). Social Science Culture (Bagher Sarokhani, Translator), Tehran: Kayhan Publications. (Persian).
Burns, S. L. (2005). “Ethnographies of law and social control”, Chichester, West Sussex, U.K.; Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell. Vol, 6.
Cohen, B. (2017). Principles of Sociology, (Gholam Abbas Tavassoli, and Translator) .Tehran: Samt Publications. (Persian).
Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research Design. London: Sage.
Davari, M. Salimi, A. (2015). Sociology of deviation, Tehran: Institute of Publications and University Research. Fifth Edition. (Persian).
Dehkhoda, A. (2017). Dictionary online, Tehran: Ketabrah. (Persian).
Erikson, K. Dormbusch, S. (2000). “Asocial process model of Adolescent Deviance”, Journal of Youth and adolescence, 29(4), 395-425.
Ghafarifar, H. (2002). “Social monitoring and control”, Journal of Women's Strategic Studies. No. 17, 92-121. (Persian).
Gould, J., Kolb, W. (2013). Social Science Culture, (Mohammad Javad Zahedi Mazandarani, Translator), Tehran: Maziar Publications. (Persian).
Hirschi, T. (1969). Cause of delinquency. Berkeley: university of California press Holloway, I., Wheeler S. (2010). Qualitative research in nursing and healthcare. 3rd ed.
Jang, H., Hoover-Larry, T., Lawton-Brian, A. (2008). “Effect of broken windows enforcement on clearance rates”, Journal of criminal justice. (36). 529-538.
Javan Jafari, A. Khodadadi, S, B. (2012). “Observing Criminals and Institutions”, Karagah Quarterly, Second period. No. 18. 30-43. (Persian).
Jiang, S., Lambert, G., Eric L, Jonahing, S. (2014). “Formal and informal control views in china, japan and the us”, Journal of Criminal Justice, 42(1). 36-44.
Jiang, S., Wang, J., Lambert, E. (2010). “Correlates of informal social control in Guangzhou, china neighborhoods”, Journal of criminal justice, 38. (4). 460-469.
Khanmohammadi, S. Memarzadeh, G. Vafadar, H. (2010). “Explaining the dimensions and components of the police crisis”, Journal of Law Management Studies, Fifth year, No. 1. 101-117. (Persian).
Kimmel, M., Aronson, A. (2012). Sociology Now. Boston, Allyn & Bacon.
Lambert, G., Jashankar, E., Jiang, S., Pasupuleti, S., Jagadish, V., Bhimarasetty. (2012). “Correlates of informal social control on crime prevention: An exploratory study among university students”, Andhra Pradesh, India, Assian criminology, 7 (3). 239-250.
Moaznadzegan, H., A. Khodadadi, S, B. (2013). “Observing criminals in the process of deprivation of liberty”, Journal of Criminal Law, forth year, Second Issue, 201-226. (Persian).
Moeidfar, S. Sabouri Khosrowshahi, H. (2010). “Investigation of Individualism in Family”, Social Science Research Journal, Fourth Year, No. 4. 93-110. (Persian).
Pourzareh, S. (2014). The effect of social control on attitude of 18-29 year olds to alcohol consumption in Behbahan, Master of Science Thesis Yasuj University. (Persian).
Qatrani, Z. (2014). Studying the Relationship between Social and Cultural Factors and Attitude toward the Promised and Prohibited Faith (Comparing Youth and Adult Age). M.Sc. of Shiraz University. (Persian).
Sabouri Khoshroshahi, H. (2010). “Education in the Age of Globalization: Challenges and Strategies for Meeting It”, Journal of Strategic Studies in Public Policy. Vol. 1,No. 1, 153-196. (Persian).
Sadiq Sarvestani, R. (2009). Social Pathology (Sociology of Social Deviations), Tehran: Samt Publications. (Persian).
Sotoudeh, H. (2016). Social pathology, Tehran: Avai Noor Publishing. (Persian).
Strauss, A., Corbin, J. M. (1998). Basics of qualitative resea